Volume 34, Issue 1, 2019
Empirical prediction model of salt intrusion along Shatt Al-Arab River, southern Iraq
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
In this paper the prediction of salt intrusion model along the Shatt Al-Arab River was applied. The analyses showed the result of salinity intrusion in Shatt Al-Arab River which is a confluence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, is essential to present a holistic picture. The analyses were based on data of seven years (2005-2011) as well as full day tide during 2009 when the salinity rose to its highest level. Due to the decrease in the quantity of water releases reaching the River from it's sources, the salinity of the saline water is increased with the flow decrease of fresh water. During the study period, the amount of flow was between 5-50 cubic meters per second. The salinity value fluctuated according to the flow reaching it's highest level in 2009, when the discharge was 5 m3/Sec. The field salinity at the studied stations: Al-Fao, Al-Seba, Al-Ashar and Bin Ummer were 32.2, 26, 11.7 and 1.4 ppt., respectively. However, salinity prediction model gives values of 32.44, 24.1, 13.4 and 2.9 ppt. for the four stations, respectively. But when the discharge was 50 m3/Sec., the field salinity at these stations were 27.5, 2.2, 1.92 and 0.8 ppt., respectively, the salinity prediction model gives values of: 27, 2.28, 1.73 and 0.5 ppt. at the four stations, respectively. These results represent a good salinity prediction model in the Shatt Al-Arab River.
Effect of Karun River on the salinity status in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah - Iraq
H.K. Al-Mahmood, A.B. Mahmood
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 13-26
The present work presents key results for the effect of Karun River on the salinity status in the Shatt Al-Arab River, in which the Total Dissolved Solid could be described the salinity status. The salinization of water is a problem of many Rivers, especially, the Rivers of Iraq. The water of Shatt Al-Arab River in the south of Iraq is experiencing a salty problem due to the lack of freshwater discharges that started since the last decade of the last century due to anthropogenic and natural causes. The path of Karun River has been diverted temporary into the Iranian territory since 2009, which is the only stream into Shatt Al-Arab River at the southern part of its sharing course with Iran. However, there is a positive role of the temporary water releases from the Karun River in reducing the salinity of the water in some locations near the mouth and in the course of the Shatt Al-Arab River during Autumn and Winter and some months of the Spring. This has confirmed by the following-up of the behavior of salinity along the path of the River over the period 2008-2017.The present study showed that the monthly TDS rates at Shatt Al-Arab River stations (i.e. Basrah, Abu Al-Khaseb and Sehan) have affected by the Karun River releases. As there is a decrease in the values of TDS at Abu Al-Khaseb and Sehan stations during the high and low tide. However, the negative effect of Karun River occurred through increasing the TDS trends, and hence the salinity, during March and Summer.
The Delta of Shatt Al-Arab River, Framework and Evolution
W.M. Al-Mosawi, F.Y. Al-Manssory
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 27-42
Shatt Al-Arab Delta was built at the northern end of the Arabian Gulf (AG) on the top of a longitudinal shallow marine basin shape. Today the hydrologic regime of Shatt Al-Arab River is suffering from many changes caused by anthropogenic activity impacts, led to a significant decrease in water feeding about 1000 m3/sec in 1990 into less than 50m3/sec in 2016. Many previous studies have been discussed as well as performing a marine geophysical surveys to assess the evolution of Shatt Al-Arab Delta during the history. Many phenomenon and progradational parts of the Delta: Prodelta, distributary channel, bay fill, and beach ridge have been identified from marine geophysical survey. The lower reflector is appear as irregular surface, which could indicate the presence of an ancient beach that appear as a terraces region due to fluctuation in the sea level. The second reflector appear as a layer have had variation depth, which may represent a beginning of the ancient delta creation after of the sea level stability (< 5000 years ago). The top layers have been deposited, which represent the present day delta. This present result suggests that there are three phases of delta evolution during history, the first phase represents the beginning of the modern origin of this delta during 1000-2000 yr. ago when the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are connected together, at that time the delta was not so large and have been formed by the excess sediment that coming from the marshes after the two Rivers dumping most of their sedimentary load there. The second phase represents the activation of this delta with stabilized coastline, especially after the manmade connection between Karun and Shatt Al-Arab Rivers, which occurred before thousand years ago. The third phase represents the last half of the previous century when several factors contributed on the evolution of Shatt Al-Arab delta, including hydrological, climatological and anthropogenic factors.
Distribution and diversity of Meiobenthos in southern Caspian Sea (Mazandaran-Iran)
M. Zarghami, M.R. Fatemi, T.H.Y. Al-Maliky, M.S. Mollayousefi, F. Nazarhaghighi
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 43-62
Biodiversity and distribution of benthic Meiobenthos in the sediments of the Southern Caspian Sea were studied in order to introduce and determine their relationship with the environmental factors. From 12 stations (ranging in depths from 5, 10, 20 and 50 meters), sediment samples were gathered for four seasons (2012). Temperature, salinity, dissolved Oxygen and pH were measured during sampling with CTD (conductivity, temperature and Depth). Percentage grain size and total organic matter and calcium carbonate were measured. The average water temperature ranged from 9.52 to 23.93 ͦC, dissolved Oxygen from 7.71 to 10.53 mg/L, salinity from 10.57±0.07 to 10.75±0.04 ppt., pH from 7.44±0.29 to 7.41±0.22, EC from 17.97±0.12 to 18.30±0.04 μs/cm2, TDS from 8.92±0.04 to 9.14±0.02 mg/L, total organic matter from 5.83±1.43 to 6.25±0.97% and calcium carbonate fluctuated from 2.36±0.36 to 1.68±0.19%. From the 4 groups of animals (Foraminifera, Crustacea, Worms and Mollusca), 40 species belonging to 29 genera of 25 families were identified Ammonia beccarii caspica, was the common species in all sampling stations. Depth was an important factor in the distribution of meiobenthos. Mean of maximum and minimum Shannon index were measured at depth of 5m and 50 m and were in the order of 0.93 and 0.43, respectively. Account of Shannon and Peilou's index showed that this area is under pressure and is not steady.
A comparison of sedimentological, environmental and fauna between two regions, NW of the Arabian Gulf
Z.A. Al-Humaidan, M.H. Al-Jaberi, R.A. Al-Ali
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 63-84
Marine environment is considered one of the richest environments in fauna of benthic marine micropaleontology because of the suitable conditions for living requirements like food, oxygen, sediment texture and salinity. In the current study, a fauna and their distribution were studied according to the depths of subsurface marine sediments from two regions at the NW Arabian Gulf, the first region at Khor Shytanah (Core 1) at the north of the study area representing a sever environment with high currents, and contain more than 95% sand grains, it is of light color, large size, rounded to sub-rounded grains and clean due to the continuous washing and water movement, whereas the second region was near the oil Basrah Port (Core 2) at the south of the study area, where the quite environment with weak currents and fine sand of dark color due to the activity of non-anaerobic bacteria , the region has angular to sub-angular grains. The type of sediment texture was determined at each depth and consisted of silt, sand silt, sand and silty sand. On the other hand, the percentage of calcium carbonate was determined in the sediments to correlates that with the size and density of fauna that live in this area.
Numerical simulation model of water-logging phenomenon at Al Jahza camp Al-Zubair town, Southern Iraq
L.S. Al-Qurnawy, A.M.A. Al-Abadi
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2019, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 85-97
The current study is focused on the groundwater modeling with three scenarios as future plans to find a suitable solution for the problem at Al-Jahza Camp south east of Al-Zubair town, south of Iraq. The objective of the study is find out a numerical model for simulating the behavior of the groundwater flow using (MODFLOW) software. The model was calibrated in the steady and transient states for four randomly distributed monitored wells in the study area with 21 stress periods. Suitable match was obtained from the comparison between the levels of the observed and calculated heads. The model was simulated to control the water-logging. The water level of the simulated head remains extremely constant in condition of constructing the underground barrier. By Supposing of digging wells and increasing the water pumping with an average of 432 and 216 m/day, the head level at exceeding extraction with constructed subsurface barrier decreased more than the head level in case of increasing the water pumping with no subsurface barrier to reach 35-40 cm and 45-50 cm respectively, and to enhance the benefit to control and decrease the water from waterlogged area in the future.
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