Volume 32, Issue 1, 2017
The concentrations of radon in the marine sediments of Ra's Al-Besha, Northern west of the Arabian Gulf
M.Q. Jaber, N.H.N. Al-Hashimi, A.R.H. Subber
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
Pollution is the common problem in the biosphere and the pollution in the marine habitat was noticed more in the present scenario. There are two ways for the pollution marine habitats. They are Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) and Artificially Radionuclides (TENORM). Methods used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides are passive (can technique) which use CR-39 and active with different ways. The passive and active methods are different in the exposure time for detectors. The study area Ra's Al-Beshais lie in the northern west of the Arabian Gulf. The obtained average value of radon concentration with arithmetic mean value of 400.7±198 Bq m-3 by the passive method. The mass exhalation rate in sediment samples under study with average value 0.1617 Bq.kg-1.h-1. This value was acceptable worldwide and safe to use.
Status of oil pollution in water and sediment from Shatt Al-Arab Estuary and North-West Arabian Gulf
H.T. Al-Saad, A.A.K. Al-Timari, A.A.Z. Douabul, A.A. Hantoush, A.M. Nasir, S.M. Saleh
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 9-18
In the present study, an attempt was made to study the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in Water and Sediment samples collected from ten stations at the region of Shatt Al-Arab Estuary and North-West of the Arabian Gulf. The water and sediment samples were analyzed by utilizing the spectrofluorometry technique. The results of the present research obviously indicated a degree of oil pollution, however, still lower in magnitude when compared with status in some other regional sites. The obtained levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in water was ranged from (3.09 µg/l) at station 7 to (30.87 µg/l) at station 9 while in sediment ranged from (19.43 µg/g) dry weight at station 4 to (49.09 µg/g) dry weight at station 9. In order to give a better evaluation of the petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the sediments, the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) percentage and grain size analyses were done by granulometry technique on selected slips of the bulk sediments obtained for this purpose. The mean percent TOC estimations ranged from 0.1 at Station 4 to 1.34 at Station 9. The mean values obtained in this study indicated that the petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the sediment samples are lower than the levels in sediment samples obtained with similar methodology and analyses in some of the Gulf States and countries in close vicinity of the region. The major pollution sources may involve tanker and boat discharges and activities, municipal sewage and rural run-off from land. Also, discharges and effluents from oil refineries, electricity generating station and industrial activities into the Basrah city are obvious.
Polyculture of Machrobracium nipponense (De Haan, 1849) with Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., 1844 in laboratory conditions.
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 19-24
The laboratory test on effect of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) at different densities in polyculture with oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) was the aim of this study. The experiment includes three treatments, prawn and 6 grass carp m-² (T1), prawn and 8 grass carp m-² (T2) and prawn and 10 garss carp m-² (T3), with three replicates in each. The prawn stocking density was the same in all treatments (10 juvenile m-²). Feeds were applied twice daily for prawn. Feeding rates were gradually reduced to 10 - 7% of body weight from the beginning to the last month. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and DO) did not vary significantly (P>0.05).The mean of juvenile weight in the final weights and the increasing weight and daily growth were differed significantly (P<0.05) between the treatment T1 as well as of the two treatments T2 and T3, Which had not significant differences (P>0.05). While not significant differences (P>0.05) in both survival and relative growth rates in all transactions. It was found that the addition of different grass carp did not affect on rates of both survival and relative growth of prawns, evidence favorable to store fish with prawn. It can be concluded that the treatments T3 was the best for prawn-fish polyculture.
Heavy metals released from sewage sludge of Basrah city, Iraq using chemical method
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 25-34
Samples of anaerobically digested sludge were obtained from the anaerobic unit of a waste water plant in Abo Al-Kaseeb (Basrah, Iraq) during 2012. The removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) were studied using sulphuric acid as a chelating agent by using A.A. Spectrophotometry. Metal removal was found to be depending on pH, solid concentration, specific types of metals and period of acidification. The rate of removal efficiency and solubilisation increased with time, low pH and low solid concentration. Limitation in solubilisation were existed, regardless of the period of acidification dependent on pH, and solid concentrations of the metal. The pattern of metals solubilisation with respect to time was similar. It increased to reach a maximum solubilisation in a relatively short period of time, and then remained the same for the duration of the 24 hrs. acidification period. This is a leading work which may open a future studies in the treatment of sewage sludge in Basrah city.
The Present Status of Fish Farm in Floating Cages at Thi-Qar Governorate
N.N. Abbood, A.A. Jabir, K.H. Youns
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 35-44
A field survey has been conducted for number of floating cages fish farms in 2016 at Thi-Qar Governorate. During a field visits for fish farms, we have distributed a survey forms, results of the survey showed that the number of fish breeding farms in cages in Thi-Qar Governorate reached 22 licensed farms included 458 cages were distributed on 7 districts. Highest number of cages was at Refayi District (164 cages) (41.20 %) of total number, and lowest number was at Shatra District (10 cages) (2.51 %) of total number. Farmed area of cages amounted 5926 m2, and total size 12637 m3, the highest of them were at Qalaat Cikar District (surface area = 2288 m2, 38 %; size = 5056 m3 40 %), while the lowest were at Shatra District (surface area = 120 m2, 2.05 %; size = 240 m3 1.89 %). Hilla’s Farms were the most sources of providing small fishes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for fish farms and floating cages in Thi-Qar Governorate, where farms of Suqal shuyukh District, Refayi District, Bathaa District and Al-Nasur District were 100 % depend on Hilla’s farms. Mechanical method was the common method for feeding the farmed fish in most of Districts in the Governorate. Farmed fish rates in floating cages ranged between 200-150 g in most of the districts of the Governorate while fish marketing rates have ranged between 1.000 g - 1800 g. Duration of breeding period was ranged between 7-9 months in most of districts. Fish farming rates were convergent in all districts and ranged between 39-52 fish/m3, while the overall rate in the Governorate was 40 fish /m3.
Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles of commercial fishes from Iraqi waters
F.J.M. Al-Imarah, A.M. Nasir, A.A.K. Al-Timari, L.J.M. Al-Anbar
Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 45-55
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the muscles of eight kind of fishes from National Iraqi Waters, Five marine species viz., Euryglossa orientalis, Otolithes ruber, Lethvinus nebulosus, Epinephelus coioides and Johnieops sina which were collected from Iraqi marine waters, and three species viz, Cyprinus carpio, Carasobarbus luteus and Plantiliza abu which were collected from Shatt Al-Arab river fresh water. All fishes were collected during spring and autumn seasons within the year 2015. Recorded total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish species from Iraqi national waters were varied between 0.054 and 155.44 ng/g, while for individual fishes: Anthracene recorded the highest values varied between 17.629 and 155.44 ng/g dry wet. Lower total PAHs value recorded was 197.54 ng/g dry wet. in O. ruber and higher total PAHs value recorded was 381.415 ng/g dry wet. in E. coioides, followed by P. abu which recorded higher total PAHs value of 275.938 ng/g dry wet. Large differences in the values of PAHs recorded during autumn 2015 were achieved which were lower than those recorded during spring. According to the ratios between low and high molecular weight PAHs, there are two sources for PAHs in the investigated fishes, the first was pyrogenic which was appeared in the fishes L. nebulosus and E. orientalis only for 0.355 and 0.274 ng/g respectively during spring 2015 and second anthrapogenic which appeared in all fishes except L. nebulosus and E. orientalis. Therefore during spring season the dominated source was the anthropogenic one. For the results of Autumn season, the ratios indicate predominant the values which were lower than 1 for mostly all studied fishes except that for E. orientalis which was equal to 1.040 indicating that most of the PAHs were from anthropogenic source. Although, concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fishes from national Iraqi waters along North West Arabian Gulf were recorded in most studied fishes, but they markedly higher than that in the background and previously reported studies in the same and nearby areas. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels, especially the carcinogenic ones, in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels and doesn’t exert any health effect upon human being upon consumption.
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